Stonehengea Neolithic monument The earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessordating to approximatelyyears ago.
By heating together tin and copper, which were in abundance in the area, the Beaker culture people made bronzeand later iron from iron ores.
The development of iron smelting allowed the construction of better ploughsadvancing agriculture for instance, with Celtic fieldsas well as the production of more effective weapons.
Brythonic was the spoken language during this time. Society was tribal; according to Ptolemy 's Geographia there were around 20 tribes in the area. Earlier divisions are unknown because the Britons were not literate.
Like other regions on the edge of the Empire, Britain had long enjoyed trading links with the Romans. The Romans invaded Britain in 43 AD during the reign of Emperor Claudiussubsequently conquering much of Britainand the area was incorporated into the Roman Empire as Britannia province.
Later, an uprising led by BoudicaQueen of the Iceniended with Boudica's suicide following her defeat at the Battle of Watling Street. According to Bedemissionaries were sent from Rome by Eleutherius at the request of the chieftain Lucius of Britain in AD, to settle differences as to Eastern and Western ceremonials, which were disturbing the church.
There are traditions linked to Glastonbury claiming an introduction through Joseph of Arimatheawhile others claim through Lucius of Britain. This period of Christianity was influenced by ancient Celtic culture in its sensibilities, polity, practices and theology.
Local "congregations" were centred in the monastic community and monastic leaders were more like chieftains, as peers, rather than in the more hierarchical system of the Roman-dominated church. Contemporary texts describing this period are extremely scarce, giving rise to its description as a Dark Age.
The nature and progression of the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain is consequently subject to considerable disagreement. Roman-dominated Christianity had, in general, disappeared from the conquered territories, but was reintroduced by missionaries from Rome led by Augustine from onwards.
During the settlement period the lands ruled by the incomers seem to have been fragmented into numerous tribal territories, but by the 7th century, when substantial evidence of the situation again becomes available, these had coalesced into roughly a dozen kingdoms including NorthumbriaMerciaWessexEast AngliaEssexKent and Sussex.
Over the following centuries, this process of political consolidation continued. Later in that century escalating attacks by the Danes culminated in the conquest of the north and east of England, overthrowing the kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia and East Anglia.
Wessex under Alfred the Great was left as the only surviving English kingdom, and under his successors, it steadily expanded at the expense of the kingdoms of the Danelaw. A fresh wave of Scandinavian attacks from the late 10th century ended with the conquest of this united kingdom by Sweyn Forkbeard in and again by his son Cnut inturning it into the centre of a short-lived North Sea Empire that also included Denmark and Norway.
However, the native royal dynasty was restored with the accession of Edward the Confessor in Catholic monasticism flourished, providing philosophers, and the universities of Oxford and Cambridge were founded with royal patronage.
The Principality of Wales became a Plantagenet fief during the 13th century  and the Lordship of Ireland was given to the English monarchy by the Pope.
During the 14th century, the Plantagenets and the House of Valois both claimed to be legitimate claimants to the House of Capet and with it France; the two powers clashed in the Hundred Years' War.
In contrast with much of European Protestantism, the roots of the split were more political than theological. There were internal religious conflicts during the reigns of Henry's daughters, Mary I and Elizabeth I. The former took the country back to Catholicism while the latter broke from it again, forcefully asserting the supremacy of Anglicanism.
Competing with Spainthe first English colony in the Americas was founded in by explorer Walter Raleigh in Virginia and named Roanoke.
The Roanoke colony failed and is known as the lost colony after it was found abandoned on the return of the late-arriving supply ship. During the Elizabethan periodEngland was at war with Spain. An armada sailed from Spain in as part of a wider plan to invade England and re-establish a Catholic monarchy.
The plan was thwarted by bad coordination, stormy weather and successful harrying attacks by an English fleet under Lord Howard of Effingham.
This failure did not end the threat: Spain launched two further armadas, in andbut both were driven back by storms.
The political structure of the island changed inwhen the King of ScotsJames VIa kingdom which had been a long-time rival to English interests, inherited the throne of England as James Ithereby creating a personal union.
It has not only been ranked with Shakespeare 's works as the greatest masterpiece of literature in the English language but also was the standard version of the Bible read by most Protestant Christians for four hundred years until modern revisions were produced in the 20th century.
This was an interwoven part of the wider multifaceted Wars of the Three Kingdomsinvolving Scotland and Ireland.
The Parliamentarians were victorious, Charles I was executed and the kingdom replaced by the Commonwealth. Leader of the Parliament forces, Oliver Cromwell declared himself Lord Protector in ; a period of personal rule followed. After the Glorious Revolution ofit was constitutionally established that King and Parliament should rule together, though Parliament would have the real power.
This was established with the Bill of Rights in Among the statutes set down were that the law could only be made by Parliament and could not be suspended by the King, also that the King could not impose taxes or raise an army without the prior approval of Parliament.
In the Great Fire of London gutted the City of London but it was rebuilt shortly afterwards  with many significant buildings designed by Sir Christopher Wren.Hi Stu. Actually it probably isn’t because it’s a custom object class – I’ve done custom objects without any trouble.
You need double’check that all the atrributes are spelled correctly in your CSV, that you have MPRs giving you permission to create them, all required attributes set – that sort of thing.
Sno Question Price; Stratford Company distributes a lightweight lawn chair that sells for $15 per unit. Variable costs are $6 per unit, and: $8. Tips regarding IAS book selection.
It’s not necessary to read heavyweight-books to clear IAS!But at the same time, there is no single book which covers all topics of IAS exam Prelims and mtb15.comering the competition and vast syllabus, there is no doubt that UPSC exam preparation cannot be done without some essential books.
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